Timeline of Mundane History

This page summarizes major and/or relevant historical events for the Saga. Greater emphasis is placed on events in Scotland and the British Isles.

A timeline of Hermetic history (e.g. the Founding of the Order, the Schism War, or the Sundering) can be found here.

Year Event
80 Roman reach the area of the Firth and Clyde Rivers, where they encounter the Cruithni, whom they call Caledonians.
84 Battle of Mons Graupius: Rome defeats hordes of Caledonians, killing their leader, Calgacus. The Romans seal the border with a series of turf forts and stone towers stretching from the Firth of Clyde to the Firth of Forth.
116 The IX Hispana, a Roman legion of over 6,000 men, disappears in the hills of the Lowlands.
120s Romans build Hadrian's Wall, between the Solway and the Tyne. Hadrian's Wall marks the boundary between Loch Leglean and Stonehenge Tribunals.
160s Romans build Antonine Wall, between the Forth and the Clyde.
367 The Picts, Saxons, Franks, Scots, and other Irish tribes all attack Britannia, which the Romans attribute to a massive conspiracy (possibly supernatural as well as military). The Romans manage to beat back the attackers by the end of 368 and recapture Hadrian's Wall, but they don't ever fully recover.
by 410 All Roman troops are recalled from Britain.
397 St Ninian (a native of Strathclyde) returns to Scotland and builds his first church at Wittern. Ninian reduced the powers of his bishopric, knowing that the Picts and Scots would not accept the word of God from a man too closely associated with the Roman version of the church.
565 St Columba crosses from Ireland in 565 and is granted the island of Iona.
664 The Synod of Whitby (convened in Deira) declares that only the Roman, rather than the Celtic, form of the Church will hold sway in the British Isles.
795 Viking pirates raid Iona, the first of a series of attacks that last until after the monastery is abandoned in 849.
834 Kenneth mac Alpin hailed as King of the Scots.
849 The abbey at Iona is abandoned, and its treasures and relics secreted in hidden places throughout inland Scotland and Ireland. This marks the end of an era of matchless scholasticism and artistic invention.
by 850 All of the southern Pictish land north of the Dorth-Clyde Line is in Scottish hands.
<900 The Pictish language becomes extinct all but extinct. The only remaining speakers of the language are the Gruagachan, and they guard it religiously.
1018 Malcolm II defeats the Angles at the Battle of Carham, annexing all their land from the Forth to the Tweed.
1039 Duncan, against the advice of his counselors, attacks England; the expedition ends in disaster.
1040 Duncan leads an army into Moray to put down a rebellion of nobles led by MacBeth. MacBeth captures and kills Duncan with the aid of Pictish wizards and renegade magi of House ex Miscellanea.
1057 Malcolm Canmore (son of Duncan, and raised in England) invades and takes the lands below the Forth Clyde Line with the aid of two magi and Duncan's brother-in-law, Siward of Northumbria. MacBeth is killed in the battle by Malcolm.
1057 Lulach (MacBeth's stepson) is declared High King of Scotland in the Pictish style. He is the last of the truly Scottish kings: he spoke Gaelic, had his major lands in the north, and respected the ancient rights and privileges of the Highlanders.
1058 Malcolm treacherously slays Lulach and takes his title. The kingship, which had passed from mother to son in the Pictish tradition, henceforth passes from father to son in the style of the Normans and English.
1066 Edward the Confessor dies, leading to a three-way struggle for the English throne between Harald Hardrada of Norway, Harold Godwinson, and Harald Hardrada.
1066 Battle of Hastings: William, Duke of Normandy kills Harold Godwinson and claims the English throne. William's advance north pushed many English nobles before it, where they found a sympathetic king in Malcolm. Many English magi also retreated to Scotland, where they plotted to regain their homeland.
1070 Malcolm invades northern England, fighting for his wife Princess Margaret of England (who would become a saint in 1250, in part for her role in bringing the Roman church to Scotland).
1072 William defeats Malcolm and forces him to recognize William as his overlord (although whether for all of Scotland or merely Lothian and Cumberland is unclear). William takes Malcolm's sun Duncan as hostage to raise in the English court. Malcolm continues to raid the northern English provinces until his death in 1093.
1093 Malcolm is killed while accepting the surrender of Northumbria, outside Alnwick. His eldest son Edward dies in the ensuing battle.
1093 Duncan, son of Malcolm is sent to Scotland by William Rufus (son of William the Conqueror) with a large contingent of knights to claim the Scottish throne. He is grudgingly accepted as king, under the condition that he never introduce English or French into the land. He is killed when he is unable to fulfill his pledge.
1093 Donald Ban, Malcolm's brother, who had been raised in Scotland, is proclaimed king of Scotland.
1185 Tiranova rebellion leads to independence for Bulgarians.
1204 Sack of Constantinople.

A map of Scottish clans

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